Yama & Niyama

3. Asteya-non stealing

What ever one wishes to get, one needs to get through honest means.

Asteyapratisthāyām sarvaratnopasthānam l 2-37

When non stealing is established, all kind of wealth approach.


4. Brahmacarya-all round self control

Most of the people think brahmacarya is celibacy or living an unmarried life only, it's not just that. Brahmacarya is act of all-round self control. Not doing unnecessary activities especially activities which disturb the pursuing Self knowledge. Discipline over the sense organs and having simple lifestyle. Including not over eating, talking, sleeping, not indulge in any sense object, which having a life of celibacy is a big factor in sense control.

Brahmacaryapratisthāyām vīryalābhah l 2-38

When brahmacarya is established, vigor is gained. This is not just physical vigor but also mental strength one will gain.

5. Aparigraha-non accumulate and freedom from greed (grabbing mind)

Not possessed what is beyond one’ necessity of life. Especially when one is having ability for spending, one tend to buy things which are not necessarily needed. In some places aparigraha translates as not acceptance of gifts, because it will cause attachment towards the giver and obligation in fulfilling expectation of the giver.

Therefore in another way when we give gift to people, we also need to consider this factor, giving because of the act of appreciation, not because of certain intention.

Aprigrahasthairye janmakathantāsambodhah l 2-39

When one is free from greed, knowledge of how the existence or birth come. Knowing about the pass and future.

II. Niyamah-observance

It is the second limbs of yoga. They are:

Śaucasantosatapah svādhyāyesvarapranidhānāni niyamāh l 2-32

The observance (actively do the action) are Internal and external purity, contentment, austerity, study of scripture, devotion and surrender to Isvara.

1. Saucam-purity

External purity, keeping the body and environment clean, also internal purity to keep the mind see thing as it is, not to speculate the thought, like jealousy, judgemental, hatred, etc.

Śaucāt svāngajugupsā parairsamsargah l 2-40

By purification, one become disgust with one own body and cessation of contact with other. Lust is disappear.

Satvaśudhisaumanasya ekāgrendriyajayāh ātmadarśanayogyatvāni ca l 2-41

When mind is purified, senses are controlled, mind become inward, cheerfulness of the mind is there, therefore one is fit to realized his own nature.

2. Santosa-contentment

Contentment doesn't means being lazy. Any goal which we wish to gain, we should work for it, but with the attitude of gratitude towards the result. Because when one doesn't have the attitude of contentment, no matter how much one gets, he/she will never feel enough. When contentment is not there, it really hard for one relax and enjoy the life. Even during the enjoyment, he/she will think “it will be even better if....”.

Santosādanuttamah sukhalābhah l 2-42

Supreme happiness is obtained through contentment.

3. Tapas-austerity

Tapas is religious observance, certain kinds of tapas will gives certain kinds of result. Like fasting in certain days, keeping awake and doing Japa in certain days, etc. Besides that we also can do any small tapas in the form of personal willful denied in our daily life. Like taking cold water bath, taking less of the things we like the most, talk less if we like to talk. These can contribute the mental strength and reduce the attachment of likes and dislikes.

Kāyendriyasidhih śudhiksayāt tapasah l 2-43

When tapas is established, arises psychic power in the body and senses.

4. Svadhyaya-study of scripture

One study the scripture and should assimilate in one’s daily life.

Svādhyāyādistadevatāsamprayogah l 2-44

When it's established, will lead to communion with the god.

5. Isvarapranidhana

Devotion and surrender to Isvara (karma yoga attitude).

Samādhisidhih īśvarapranidhānāt l 2-45

When established, one stays in ones’ true nature.

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