Qualification 2: Virāgaḥ - Dispassion

Q: Virāgaḥ kaḥ? What is viraga/dispassion?

A: Iha svargabhōgēṣu icchārāhityaṁ II

Absent of desire in the enjoyments here (in this world) and in the enjoyments of heaven.

Icchārāhityaṁ literally means absent of desire. But as human being, its is impossible to have total no desire. We might don't have desire toward certain things, but we do have desire for other things. So the meaning of viraga here is the freedom from addiction or slavery. Viraga / dispassion with regard to the sense pleasure here and here after (heaven). One set of people live the life only for enjoyment. There is nothing wrong with enjoyment, but we don't become the slaves of the enjoyment. Another set of people will have the attachment for the enjoyment after life. So they attach to the action which is resulting punya karma (result of good action which gives pleasure situation), even they feel suffering while doing the action.

Sense pleasure can be non ethical which is not supported by dharma-righteous living and ethical sense pleasure. We should avoid the non ethical sense pleasure and having ethical sense pleasure in moderation. At last by the knowledge of the self, we can see the limitation of enjoyment and not attach by them even for righteous actions. That is the ultimate freedom. Lord Krsna in Gita said: Sarvadharmān parityajya mām-ekam śaranam vraja I aham tvā sarvapāpebhah moksayisyāmi mā śucah II 18-66

Giving up all karma (action), take refuge in Me alone. I will release you from all karma (result of action), do not grief. This verse is though at the end of Gita, because otherwise people may give up all the righteous action. Given up here means not attached by it. Only by understand about the nature of the self which is superimpose to the doer and enjoyer, one is not attach to any of the action. Otherwise the action of giving up just based on likes and dislikes.

It is very rationale to have this qualification for the pursue of self knowledge, because if one is attached by sense pleasure, how do one see the limitation of the sense objects which is pounding by the teaching of Vedanta again and again. How can one having a strong conviction about the limitation of all objects except brahma (nitya-vastu-eka brahma), if one is giving the reality to the sense objects?

Qualification 3: Śamādi Ṣaṭka sampattiḥ - The six disciplines

Q: Śamādi-sādhana-sampattiḥ kā?

What is the six-fold discipline or inner wealth of sadhana starting from sama etc.,?

A: Śamō dama uparama tistitikṣā śraddhā samādhānaṁ ca iti II

They are inner peace, control of the external organs, observance of one’s own duties, endurance, faith (trust), and single pointedness.

Q: Śamaḥ kaḥ? What is sama? A: Manō-nigrahaḥ I Resolution of the mind.

The word śamah literally means peace or equanimity. This peacefulness is with regards to the mind, therefore śamah means tranquility of the mind. In our modern saying is stress free mind. When the mind is stress and heavy, how this mind can function as the a good instrument to run our life? Tattvabodhah doesn't teach us how to get this stress free mind, but we can refer to our previous lessons of Yamah-moral restrain and Niyama-observance.

Only with a tranquil mind, one can pursues self knowledge which required a mind which can listen to the teaching, reflect upon what one has heard, and assimilate what one has understood to one's life.

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