Sādhana Catuṣṭaya Sampattiḥ The Four-fold qualifications
Ācārya started his teaching by briefly stated the qualifications required for the serious seeker of the pursue of self knowledge. Sādhanacatuṣṭaya-sampannādhikāriṇāṁ I
mōkṣasādhānabhūtaṁ tattvavivekaprakāram vakṣyāmaḥ II
We shall describe the method of discriminative enquiry of truth which is the (direct) means for liberation for the qualified ones who are endowed with the four-fold sadhanas (qualification).
3 points are brought about by this verse: 1. The subject to be taught, Tattvavivekaprakāram 2. The purpose of this study, Mōkṣasādhānabhūtaṁ 3. The target audience, Sādhanacatuṣṭaya-sampannādhikāriṇāṁ
Tattvavivekaprakāram - the method of self-analysis/self-enquiry to find out who really I am. Why one need to do enquiry about oneself? We do enquiry only to the things which we don't know, but why do we need to acquire my own self? Don't I know about myself? I do know about myself, but what I know is only a misconception about myself. I am taking the non me to be me, and superimpose myself into the non me. Our problems come only because of this misconception. This self-analysis lead to self-knowledge.
Mōkṣasādhānabhūtaṁ - the method of the self-analysis which is the means for attaining moksa - liberate from the bondage. Is it true by knowledge of the self through the self enquiry, one can liberate from the bondage? Doesn't this pursue have the limitation like other pursue? In this persue, we are gaining what is already gained. Only because our true nature is limitless, otherwise no matter what kind of means we employ, we will not attain limitless happiness. Therefore, only by knowing my true nature, I can liberate myself from the bondage.
Sādhanacatuṣṭaya-sampannādhikāriṇāṁ - for one who is endowed with the virtue in the form of four fold qualifications.
These are the 3 points ācārya briefly mentioned in beginning of this text.
Now the text is presented in the dialogue form between a student and the teacher. This is one of the methods adopted by ācārya and also upanishads. Most of the frequent asked questions of sadhakas (seeker of liberation) are presented in the questions of the student. In this manner our questions also being answered by ācārya.
Sādhana-catuṣṭayaṁ kiṁ? What are the four-fold qualification (for gaining moksa)? Teacher (A): Nityānityavastu-vivēkaḥ I Ihāmutrārthaphalabhoga-virāgaḥ । Śamādi-Ṣaṭka-sampattiḥ । Mumukṣutvam cēti II
Discriminative understanding of the difference between the timeless and time-bound, dispassion for the result of the experience here and hereafter, the six-fold
accomplishments beginning with sama (inner composure) etc., and desire for freedom from becoming.
Qualification 1: Vivēkaḥ - Discrimination
Q: Nityānityavastu vivēkaḥ kaḥ? What is the discriminative understanding between nitya (timeless) and anitya (time-
A: Nityavastvekam Brahma tadvyatiriktaṁ sarvamanityaṁ I
Ayamēva nityānityavastuvivēkaḥ II
The timeless (infinite) is one, Brahman (limitless). All else other than that is time-bound (finite). This alone is the discriminative understanding between timeless and time-bound.
Viveka means discriminative knowledge or clarity in thinking. In the Vedanta teaching, the word viveka is used in the positive way, not like the word discrimination is used in nowadays which bringing the sense of negativity like gender, cast, nationality discrimination, etc. As the first qualification for one who pursue the self knowledge, he/she should equips with viveka, which is a clear thinking to differentiate what is permanent and what is impermanent. The clear knowledge of what is permanent and what is not is important for one not to have wrong expectations. As in the first class we have mentioned that the problem of human being come most because of wrong expectation on the things which couldn't meet the expectation. Permanent happiness cannot come from impermanent thing. What is born, will die. What is started, will end.
Thin this case, is there any permanent thing at all?
There is only one permanent, limitless Brahman. Brahman means infinite principle. It derived from the root बृह् (brh), means big, infinitely big, limitlessly big. When we are talking about limitless means freedom from limitations, there are always 3 factors to of limitation. Time wise limitation, space wise limitation and object wise limitation. This body was born in particular day, and continue living till particular day only. This is time wise limitation. If I am here now in Singapore, I can not be in others country. This is space wise limitation. If I am sumukhee, I can not be Janaki. This is object wise limitation.
Because of knowing such limitation, we understand not to expect an unexpected expectation. What is the use by knowing this limitation? So I will not regret what I have done, by knowing time limitation. I will not longing to be another part of country when I am here now, by knowing space limitation. And I will not feeling small if I compare to another person, by knowing the object limitation.
Other then Brahman the infinite principle, all are limited alone.
Brahman has no birth date, it was there since time beginning less. Never absent and never ceases to be. It also never limited by space because It is all pervading. It is manifest as everything without exception, this is called non-duality. Only duality is there, then object limitation is there.
Only permanent Brahman is the source of permanent happiness. And this infinite principle is my true nature alone. This is viveka, having a clear understanding what is permanent and not permanent.